Today’s world is characterized by unprecedented urban growth. Such development presents a range of opportunities and various stresses to the urban population. Proper housing has become a precondition to overcome poverty and vulnerability of the urban poor, and their participation has been one of the most important instruments in urban development. On one hand participatory development in informal urban settlements as an approach is challenging, on the other hand overused participation in development practice faces criticism for lack of proper analysis, insight and understanding. The book studies preconditions for and implications of slum residents’ participation in upgrading and improvement programmes in the fourth biggest Indian metropolis – Chennai. Challenges for participation are analysed with respect to sustaining or to developing outcomes of upgrading programmes. The main objective of the book is to assess threats and opportunities for participatory development and to identify areas of possible difficulties for community participation in informal urban settlements in general.