The environment within which organizations operate is dynamic and not static. To satisfy the needs of its stakeholders, to grow and survive organizations be it business or public should respond to the changes that occur in the environment. A healthy organization which needs to win the wishes and interests of stakeholders need to devise a new ways or tools which help to it to be efficient and effective. Public organizations and the civil service in Ethiopia is dramatically changing. The attempt to have effective and efficient performance management system as a tool to improve performance and service delivery is continuing. However, problems related to a clear understanding, awareness, commitment, capacity…etc of the system become an obstacle to attain the desired goals. Therefore, this book will try to raise the different issues that can be a challenge and a problem for the implementation of the performance based management system as a tool to improve service delivery. Hence, the book can provide valuable information for practitioners and experts in this subject area.