Nowadays, organizations, be it governmental or non- governmental, operate in a complex and changing environment. To cope up with this changing environment organizations need to have skilled and professional workers. Moreover, these skilled and professional employees should be handled properly and retained for considerable period of time. Addis Ababa City Administration is not immune from the problem of high employee turnover. As a result, the civil service sector of the city administration at large characterized by shortage of professional and qualified human resources that can be manifested in many forms including absence of sufficient qualification, insufficient recruitment, and high rate of turnover and low inflow of labor. It is worth to note that shortage of qualified professionals in the civil service sectors is mainly expressed in terms of inability to attract and retain staff. Having this in mind, this book is designed to investigate the challenges of retaining professional workers in Addis Ababa City Administration. It tried to explore the possible challenges to retain these professional workers.