The nursing shortage, one major stumbling block debilitating the nursing profession, has been well addressed locally and internationally over the past decade. Many recent research studies indicated that one of the sources contributing to the shortage of nursing professionals is the attrition of new graduate nurses (NGN/s). Recent research studies indicated that the high attrition rates of NGNs are related to the challenges that face them during transition into their new roles. This comparative literature review aims at exploring the transition challenges that new nurse graduates encounter in the Middle East compared to USA. Findings indicated that the role transition challenges in the Middle East were similar to those in USA with a variation in the themes identified rather than the content specified under each theme. The Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey (2004) appeared to have most of the role transition challenges represented in its sub-scales. This review calls for more research studies assessing role transition challenges of NGNs in the Middle East. It also presents a valid and reliable tool to utilize in assessing NGNs’ role transition challenges.