African tropical forests are providing important ecosystem services by storing carbon and being a carbon sink, thereby reducing the rate of increase of atmospheric carbon-dioxide. These forests are however clearly sensitive to land use and climatic changes, and past events may have left their signature on present day forests. With adequate protection these forests are likely to remain large carbon stores in the longer term. The reduction of forest area is mainly due to expansion of agricultural land and this has been linked to reduction in soil quality. This study examines the trend in forest cover change between 1973 and 2010 and identifies their drivers; quantifies the effects on carbon stocks and soil properties. Image analysis, field study and laboratory work were done. This book provides empirical evidence on forest conversion dynamics and how they have affected carbon stocks and soil properties in and around BIF, a forest with great bio-diversity and popular for gorilla tourism in Uganda. This work is relevant to a wide range professionals, practitioners, politicians, development agencies and all interested in safeguarding our environment for future generations.