The sustainable food production is necessary to maintain food security. But the absence of adequate amount of water at the right time has made rice cultivation increasingly difficult in different parts in Nepal. The capacity of farmers to produce rice (the staple food) by adapting to the emerging changes in rainfall pattern is diminishing due to both policy to technological related factors. They have not been able to adapt to emerging changes by making changes in their way of planting rice, but try to manage with minimum amount of water barely sufficient to support transplanting to plant rice so that the rain when it occurs few weeks later can support its production. Low-income populations who have no other source of income and fully dependent on agriculture are particularly hard hit by these emerging changes. It is necessary to make strategies and policies to enable these communities to adapt to the new rainfall pattern and ensure food security.