Reducing child mortality is the fourth Millennium Development Goal, whose target is to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015(WHO, 2002). This book therefore focuses on the characteristics of household experiencing under five mortality and specifically examines how under five mortality is related to the demographic factors e.g marital status, household size and distance to the health facility, household's environmental and socio-economic characteristics, such as mother's education, source of drinking water, sanitation facility, type of housing and Cultural characteristics e.g. tradition. Household’s environmental and socio-economic characteristics, demographic and cultural characteristic are found to have significant impact on under five mortality. Policies aimed at achieving the goal of reduced child mortality should be directed on improving the household’s environmental status, socio-economic status as well as demographic characteristics if this goal is to be realized.