Some plants found in the southern part of Africa called resurrection plants have evolved the remarkable ability to survive long periods without water to reach an air-dry state. They occur in a vast area from Namibia in the west to Zimbabwe in the east and parts of South Africa in the south. Many studies have been devoted to study their mechanism of desiccation tolerance. It has been proposed that these plants possess a high level of polyphenols that might be involved in their surviving low water content. Few studies have been done to elucidate the polyphenol content and the chemical structure(s) of the main polyphenol(s) present. This book represents the first such study to characterise the main polyphenols present in these plants and to determine their involvement in desiccation tolerance. This book present data suggesting that though polyphenols contribute to desiccation tolerance and protects cells against desiccation and also against free radical-induced damage, they are not the major determinants. This book is compact enough to serve the graduate student as an introduction to resurrection plants and to the investigator as a quick update on important recent discoveries.