Soil is one of the species rich habitats in terrestrial ecosystem. This complex and heterogeneous belowground environment provides numerous niches to soil fauna concerning microhabitats, and microclimatic properties. It has been reported that of the total number of described species, 23 per cent are soil living organisms. Landuse/land-cover change is an important driver of biodiversity loss. From the moment a natural system is modified, major changes occur to the soil environment and to the community present there. The intensity of the change induced compared with the original ecosystem and the ability of the various organisms to adapt to these changes will determine the ultimate community present after the perturbation. Habitat heterogeneity as a function of crop diversification plays important role in increased food source and environmental conditions for the soil biota while use of pesticides, deep tillage, contamination and pollution etc. plays negative role. This book presents a comprehensive understanding on the spatial pattern and structural dynamics of soil macrofauna in the context of rapid landuse changes and intensive land utilization.