This work examines the literary career of the Canadian poet and writer Charles G.D. Roberts in order to illustrate problems and possibilities faced by Canadian writers during the opening decades of the twentieth century. During these years, Canada shifted from colonial status to autonomy and nationhood, and from a colonial mentality to the shaping of a distinct, if ambiguous, Canadian identity. Roberts left Canada in 1897 but did return in 1925, bringing with him international acclaim as a successful writer of nature stories. These yarns helped provided an escape for the urban middle-class in Britain, the United States, and Canada at a time when they were reeling under the pressures of modern living. Moreover, he helped define cultural space for Canadians. Davidson uses Roberts as a medium for exploring the relationship between Canadian authors and the wider transatlantic literary community during decades that witnessed a shift from Victorian romanticism to twentieth-century modernism.