Ficus religiosa L., a Sacred Fig, belongs to the family Moraceae, is widely distributed all along tropical and sub-tropical regions. The plant is considered sacred by followers of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. This book is based on the research work entitled “Investigations of the chemical compositions of the wood of Ficus religiosa (peepal)”. The book comprises VI chapters. The chapter I contains general introduction, a short introduction of morphology and anatomy of a tree and wood chemistry together with diversity and ethno pharmacology of Ficus species. The chapter II contains all the literatures related with the investigations of Ficus and other related species. All the standard methods of analysis, analytical as well as instrumental, with flow sheet diagram of work plan, applied for investigations are included in the chapter III. The chapter IV is the main chapter of findings. All the results of investigations are tabulated in this chapter together with the comparative study as well as discussions. The conclusions and references are given in V and VI chapters respectively. This book explores somewhat on the secret of longevity, durability and the prospective industrial use.