The aim of this study is to examine the influence of selected demographic and socio-economic and utilization of reproductive health services among women variables on health status of children under five year old in urban slum of greater Mumbai, urban and rural Maharashtra. This chapter present the summary, findings and policy implications of the study. The result of the present study provides a better understanding of the determinant of health status of children under five years old. The analysis indicates that compared to children in rural Maharashtra, children in urban Maharashtra are more likely to get diarrhoea. The impact of provision of good health services in urban area is not found in case of children residing in slum areas. Compared to rural Maharashtra, the percentage of women who had utilized reproductive health services were more in urban Maharashtra as well as Mumbai slum. Women in urban Maharashtra and slums were more likely to go for antenatal visits as compared to women in rural area.