Revision with unchanged content. Since the 1970’s, anthropologists have been studying the problems of gender issues/differences/bias, etc. in different societies, ranging from gathering and hunting to intensive agriculturalists. It can be safely assumed from their studies that gender issues are almost universal. This study is based upon certain biological, psychological, economic, and other socio-cultural variables/factors, related to child health and health care practices in India, applied among two income and caste groups of higher and lower ranks, selected from three multi-caste localities of the Allahabad city of U.P., India. The main problem raised in this study examines: Whether any gender difference in child health and health care exists in terms of, and with reference to, economic and caste hierarchies among the population under study? The book will serve as an asset to all the academicians, research scholars, NGO professionals and policy makers engaged in health, gender, nutrition and child studies in Indian setting. As, the interdisciplinary approach adopted in the study provides a comprehensive picture of the entire Indian scenario on the concerned issues.