Among the eight Millennium Development Goals, the fourth one is to reduce child mortality. The southern Asia is at the second position in child mortality after sub Saharan Africa. Immunization Programme is the best way to reduce the child mortality and a key strategy to ensure global health security. In response to challenges in Indian immunization, Government of India, WHO and UNICEF have developed the Expanding Programme on Immunization (EPI) and the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP). The macro picture on childhood immunization in India suggests that though overall coverage has improved dramatically but the results have not been uniform across the different states and also during all the years. The various socio-economic and demographic factors, considered in this work, some have negative impact on child immunization and act as barriers to reducing child mortality. The effects of these negative factors have to be mitigated. Therefore, the strategy for the removal of these obstacles should be formulated regionally and the priorities of different regions are to be taken into account.