Chillies, the green or dried ripe fruits of pungent forms of Capsicum species, are one of the important members of the family Solanaceae. It is endowed with a multitude at fruit forms, colours and sizes. In spite of its high nutritive value, well acceptability among growers and consumers and wide range of available genetic variability we are still lagging behind to exploit its full production potentiality. This book is detailed and single source coverage of the germplasm diversity, characterization and nature of gene action for yield and other important attributes of chilli for identification of good combiners, as well as framing of the breeding approach for the genetic improvement of such characters. The study should be useful to the researchers, academicians and students of agriculture and horticulture.