Chromosomes are thread like bodies within the nucleus of a cell. They are present in pairs and can be seen when stained properly. The chromosomes are responsible for transmitting hereditary material from parents to offspring’s. The genetic material is arranged in the chromosomes in a precise order that is generally maintained in a given species, generation after generation. Extra chromosomes are usually detrimental whereas missing chromosomes usually cause death shortly after conception or in early embryonic life. These chromosomal aberrations may have cytologically and genetically detectable consequences. The normal chromosome complement of domestic cattle consists of 60, XY for a bull and 60, XX for a cow. The purpose of the review is to motivate young scientists in the most advanced area of animal breeding and genetic research which may fast contribute to the improvement and economics of Livestock production.