Unfortunately more individuals are being diagnosed with renal failure due primarily to ailments such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease; more stress is being placed on the prevention, and early detection of kidney disease to minimize progression to renal failure; this approach requires collaborative working between nephrologists and other hospital specialties (particularly diabetic medicine and cardiology/ cardiovascular medicine), though more emphasis is also required for the collaboration between primary care and secondary care entities. There has to be more involvement from the latter simply because patients who are at high risk of renal failure need better ?preparation?; prompt early referral to secondary care is a must in order to allow the best prognosis. It should be acknowledged that whilst primary and secondary care work well as separate entities, ultimately there must be development of more integrative measures if renal failure is to be challenged on all fronts. Even better would be a thorough collaboration between General Practitioners (GPs) in Primary Care, Patients, Community Pharmacy and Nephrologists involved in Secondary Care.