Successful periodontal therapy requires a proper and accurate diagnosis. Radiography is a valuable aid in the diagnosis of periodontal disease, determination of prognosis and evaluation of treatment outcome. However, the radiograph is an adjunct to clinical examination, not a substitute for it. The world of imaging for dentists has greatly widened in the past decade, no longer are we restricted to transmission radiography. Newer techniques have been developed that enhance our ability to see even small changes over time. The proper use and interpretation of these readily available diagnostic modalities requires a clear understanding of their respective limitations and capabilities. Clearly the end result of better diagnosis should be early intervention and better treatment. The present research focuses on, and attempts to present realistic, relevant, in detail review of current leading edge concepts, technologies and range of imaging techniques in radiology that have potential use for diagnosis of periodontal diseases and the application of this new knowledge to patient care.