Poverty and climate change have been on the agenda of many sub-Saharan African countries over the last few years. Farmers have to contend with extreme natural resource challenges and constraints such as poor soil fertility, pests, crop diseases and lack of access to inputs and improved seeds. These challenges are usually worsened by periods of prolonged droughts and floods. Other agricultural activities could also be affected by climate change, including changes in the onset of rain days and variability of dry spells. This book examined the effect of climate change on alleviating poverty and meeting the millennium development goals and concludes that whether sub-Saharan African countries lose or win the game against poverty and climate change depends on the seriousness with which they pursue research and development agenda that will improve and modernise agriculture to reduce poverty and create wealth; mitigate the effects of climate change and help the vulnerable through the necessary adaptation mechanisms. This book will be useful to policy makers, scientists, university lecturers and students who are interested in alleviating poverty and mitigating the effects of climate change.