This book is based on a research conducted in the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania. Drawing on results generated from a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques, the findings showed that livelihood activities in the area, especially farming and fishing are already affected by climate change impacts. Research findings also showed that climate change related conditions such as altered rainfall patterns, recurrent droughts, salt water intrusion, and sea-level rise, adversely impact local communities, thus compelling them to devise coping strategies to sustain their livelihoods. It is concluded that Coastal Tanzania and particularly the Rufiji Delta, is already impacted by climate change. People with interest in climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation of social and ecological systems will find this book quite resourceful as it attempts to draw local community's knowledge and experience for plausible policy formulation and implementation at local, national and regional levels.