There is much evidence that shows climate change is already occurring. This changing climate is expected to have significant impact on many economic sectors, particularly agriculture. This manuscript focuses on analyzing the economic risks flowing from the potential impacts of future climate change on wheat yields. Murray Darling Basin (MDB) of Australia was selected as a case study. The MDB region is acknowledged as the Australian ‘food basket'' and agriculture''s ‘heartland'' where wheat is one of the major crop options for farmers. The first part of this manuscript is addressed to discuss climate change and wheat production in the MDB region. The next part reviews literature on economic assessment of climate change impacts on wheat yields. Detail methodology employed for the assessment of the impacts on wheat yields in the basin is described in the third part. The results, discussion and conclusion are presented in the last part. The results are expected to benefit for devising appropriate adaptation strategies for wheat production in the region in order to minimize the possible risks and maximize the potential benefits from climate change.