Since the industrial revolution, human activities have continuously been releasing greenhouse gases which substantially modify the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The consequential build-up of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere is regarded with a lot of apprehension because of the anticipated possible human-induced climate change. A vision of extreme events such as floods, storms or severe droughts is often used to illustrate the possible outcome of this climate change. Although the industrialised countries are historically responsible for the emergence of the global warming phenomenon, Sub-Saharan Africa is the region where climate change, according to scientists, is likely to bring the heaviest burden. Designed to find out the African position, this book analyses the challenges that would need to be taken up in a context of climate change and provides recommendations for the adoption of adequate policies that reconcile development objectives and maintenance of the natural resource base. For all those who are at different levels (international, regional or national) involved in defining and implementing the development policies in Africa, this study will be helpful.