This book explores the interrelationships between climate variability, land-use and livelihoods in the rangelands, taking Makueni and Kajiado Counties of southern Kenya as a case. Makueni County is predominantly inhabited by an agropastoral community while Kajiado County is mainly occupied by a pastoral community. Available statistics suggest that Makueni County was more food secure with a vulnerability to food insecurity (VFI) of 0.27 compared to Kajiado County whose VFI was 0.59. Estimation through Two-Stage and Generalised Least Squares regression models showed that rainfall, land holdings, herd sizes, livestock offtake, agroforestry, household sizes, beef prices and stocking rates influence VFI in Makueni while access to climate information, temperature, herd size, livestock offtake, agroforestry, maize price, female household headship and off-farm opportunities influenced VFI in Kajiado. Therefore, improved livestock breeds, access to climate information, micro-industries, women organisations, access to land, better beef prices, correct stocking rates and agroforestry are critical in improving land-use systems and livelihoods in the rangelands.