This book proposes on inquiry into the real world of the Eastern part of Romania, aiming at exploring to what extent and under which circumstances clusters can offer viable solutions to the less developed regions located in this area. The contribution of the book to the cluster literature enrichment is twofold. First, the research methodology combines three investigation perspectives, which provide complementary insights into the clustering phenomenon in the Eastern part of Romania, namely statistical measurements, GIS application and interview-based qualitative research. Thus, it captures the specific features of the basic cluster components - sectorial concentration, geographical proximity and competition and cooperation relations, being – for the best of our knowledge - the first complex, complete analysis of the clustering phenomenon in a Romanian geographical area. Second, it opens the door for further studies devoted to clusters in less developed regions, which can become a very challenging niche within the large regional clusters research area.