Comparative anatomy is the study of body structures of different species in order to understand the adaptive changes they have undergone in the course of evolution.Comparative Dental Anatomy deals with comparative study of morphology of teeth and their related structures in different animals and also between members of the same species. Study on comparative anatomy can be traced back to scattered anatomical observations made by ancient Greeks. Now it has progressed even further with the recent concepts on molecular and genetic similarities between species. In this book an attempt has been made to compare the dentition and related structures of various animals. The chapters provide discussions on dental evolution, dental morphology and the anatomic variations in teeth jaws and muscles of mastication according to the animal’s feeding habits.