The book is on the behavioral aspect on competitiveness and Research & Development (R&D) of Indian Automobile and Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Industries. The book is also focused on the competitiveness and role of R&D expenditure of the automobile and drugs and pharmaceuticals industry. The study attempts to examine the competitiveness in the Indian automobile and drugs and pharmaceuticals industries. The objectives of the study are to examine the role of R&D in the industry that is whether R&D is used as cost reducing or performance promoting expenditure. The study also focuses on the impact of R&D on the employees working in the industry. The study reveals that R&D plays a crucial role both for reducing cost and promoting market performance. Research and development is beneficial not only for the entrepreneurs but also for the employees of the Indian industries. The study would be at industry level as well as firm level by using panel regression. Finally, it is hoped that the study will meet some requirements of the future researchers as well as academicians and industry professionals who are interested to work relevant to this area of the study in industrial economics.