Image processing means the execution of different procedures with a specific purpose upon the images. In view of the commonality of mathematical models, the methods proposed in this book are quite universal and can be applied to the processing of a wide range of multidimensional signals. Theory and practical outcomes detailed in the book are based on the original research of the scientists of the Image Processing Systems Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPSI). Part I of the book serves as an introduction to the problem, basic concepts and classical methods, demonstrates the main aspects of signals analysis and representation. Part II of the book provides explanation of the methods for the image compression, synthesis of fast algorithms, direction field, image feature extraction, objects detection in image. Appendixes in the Part II deal with the examples of the methods application to the tasks of biomedical image processing and remote sensing. The book is aimed at a wide audience, who is interested in computer image processing. The presented results could be recommended as the basis for the subsequent independent research.