Islam means "Peace". One who surrenders to the will of God is a "Muslim". The Holy Quran, as the word of Allah, commands not to despise one another; hence the criterion in Islam is not origin, race, colour, ethnicity or social status, but rather is “righteousness”. This monograph deals with a host of issues: Tenets of Islamic Jurisprudence (Concept of Rights, Justice and Freedom in Islam); Human Rights and Islam (Right to Life, Justice, Freedom of Religion, Basic Standard of Life and Right against Slavery in Islam); Rights of Women in Islam (Gender Equality in Islam, Muslim Women and Hijab, Islam and Polygamy, Divorce on Triple pronouncement of Talaq, Women held as Half Witness in Islam, Concept of Muta Marriage, Marital Rape in Islam); Environment and Animal Rights in Islam (Ethical Treatment to Animals, Consumption of Meat, Animal Sacrifice and Islam). Author through an in-depth analysis shows how the prejudiced interpretation of the Quranic text by some fanatical religious propagandists has rendered havoc on this religion of peace. Author finally concludes in the words of Muhammad Iqbal, “Islam is itself destiny and will not suffer destiny”.