In this work, social studies teachers'' conceptions history and pedagogical orientations toward teaching history are examined through qualitative research design. The study results indicated that the majority of teachers'' conceptions of history were characterized by a fragmented and incomplete understanding of history. Instead of seeing the interplay among the past, the recorded past, and the historian, teachers tended to see a part of the relationship among different aspects of history. More than half of the teachers looked at the outcome of the process of historical knowledge construction without taking its process into consideration or mentioning the forces that shape historical writing. A realist view of the world and a naïve epistemological view of history seemed to characterize the conceptions of most teachers who viewed history as objective knowledge. Most teachers did not see the relevancy of conceptual foundations of history to their profession and professional development. On the other hand, teachers had sophisticated pedagogical orientations toward teaching history.