Madhumeha “Richman’s disease”, since Vedic period, is familiar to mankind. Madhumeha is a disease in which mutra (Urine) of the patient attains similar property like those of madhu (Honey).It is documented as one among the twenty obstinate urinary disorders i.e. Prameha. It is also explained that, when the other Prameha are left untreated, this lead to the condition called Madhumeha. So Madhumeha can also be considered as an advanced condition or stage of Prameha. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, marked by hyperglycemia and glycosuria and resulting from inadequate production or use of insulin. Traditionally, Madhumeha can be equated with diabetes mellitus, as many similarities in view of their causative factors, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, classification, complications and also in the treatment has been found. An attempt to provide the similarities or comparison between Madhumeha and Diabetes mellitus is made in this book.