Concepts of health and illness stand at the core of social values of human society.They give expression to many of our fundamental assumptions about the meaning of human life. These concepts take different meanings in different contexts. The present work focused on the conceptualisation of health and illness among the Bondo tribe in Orissa, India. To understand these concepts, social representations of health and illness were explored among the Bondos. This book attempts to capture the dynamic features of representations. The representations of health are mainly anchored and objectified in terms of social roles and contextual factors. On the other hand the meaning of illness is anchored more in terms of cultural beliefs pertaining to supernatural elements and magic. This book is useful for planner and policy makers to understand critical health condition of Bondos. The book reflects on how health beliefs of the Bondos are in the process of change. Government may fasten this process by raising their awareness about health and hygiene through local healers.