Sustainable agriculture is a core part of the concept of sustainable development. Given the forecast in population increase, sustainable agriculture has to achieve food security in combination with economic viability, social responsibility and have as little effect on biodiversity and natural ecosystems as possible. This concept requires a thorough understanding of agroecosystem functions. The protection of soil and water is one necessary prerequisite as well as the efficient use of mineral and organic fertilizers. This might be achieved by means of improved technology and better understanding of the basic processes in soils. In the context of sustainable agriculture, also water quality and water availability are important issues, where technology and organization of irrigation posing major challenges for the future. there is no general answer to the question to which extent natural resources may be used or even consumed and to which extent the conservation of natural resources is obligatory. Within the manifold definitions of sustainable development indicated there is consensus that sustainable development implies the intergenerational transfer of natural capital.