The nature of the Nigerian State in committee of nations imperatively calls for a thorough examination of the entity called NIGERIA. This is because the country is highly endowed with both human and material resources,yet enmeshed with governance problems.Prior to independence, what seemed practicable was communal system of administration, where governance was done traditionally but at the same time hierarchically distributed and the economic base was subsistence, giving no room for serious comparative advantage. With the advent of foreign administrative style, governance toed a different dimension particularly, the process of unifying the different communities, amalgamation of the various people and tribes in the name of Protectorate, the use of indirect system of administration. No doubt, the introduction of western education opened the eyes and mind of many but even at that many things went wrong that need to be corrected,especially as the nation clocks fifty one years of independence. This book is poised to discuss fundamental challenges that Nigerians, Scholars and Public analysts considered very germane for her developing democracy and economy.