The book deals with a choice of issues of current interest in population studies. The in-depth research papers in this book are based on analysis of large-scale Demographic and Health Surveys data with focus on family planning practice and child mortality analysis of Ethiopia. The book provides insights on recent developments in methods of family planning analysis especially spacing, limiting and unmet need. The relationships between selected socioeconomic and demographic variables with current use, future use and unmet need of contraception were examined using hazard model technique. The book also addresses critical indirect estimation of child mortality. As per the analyses levels and trends it is reflected that childhood mortality declined 35 percent in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, infant mortality declined 21 percent and under-five mortality declined 26 percent. Mortality rates are still high, however, birth interval, breastfeeding and birth order reflect strong mortality decline in many regions. The book is of importance not just to demographers but to other social scientists, planners, policy makers and administrators as well.