Why is Ethiopia known to be a 'Water Tower of East Africa' yet it is faced with water shortages for agricultural production? This study shows you the challenges, incredible experiences, efforts and indigenous practices so far implemented by the community to mitigate the problem. Massive Rain Water Harvesting interventions are implemented in different parts of the country. However, the impact of such interventions are not yet assessed and registered. Therefore, this book contributes towards identifying successful indigenous and modern Rain Water Harvesting structures implemented by farmers of Kallu district of Amhara region that reveals the remarkable progress of water harvesting efforts and its significant impact on food security as well as environmental protection. It also introduces to professionals, researchers and policy makers the existing water harvesting practices in the study area and scaling up best practices to other areas.