Wetlands are areas consisting of both aquatic and terrestrial conditions whereby the environmental characteristics are usually determined largely by hydrologic processes in relation to climate and geographic location of the area. About 10% of the land surface of Tanzania is covered by wetlands which provide a wide range of ecosystem functions thus exhibit significant economic, social, cultural and biological values. Masurura Swamp supports a variety of flora and fauna through which the communities living around derive various products and services. It provides habitat for a variety of wild fauna such as hippopotamus and crocodiles, a variety of waterfowls as well as a variety of fish species of economic importance. This book aims to encourage various communities to learn about and ensure sustainability of wetlands found within their areas. It will also help extension officers, project managers and other leaders to take an active role in protecting Masurura Swamp and other wetlands to ensure survival and sustainability of existing biodiversity for current and future generations.