The metabolic syndrome is a complex cardiometabolic cluster characterized by hyperinsulinaemia, low glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity. It represents a significant marker of increased risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. To fight efficiently the forecasted type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular and metabolic complications, evidence-based strategies, focusing on target groups at risk, are needed to tailor prevention programs. In this context, the overall aim of this work was to investigate, for the first time, the epidemiological profile of the metabolic syndrome, its variations and its potential socioeconomic, behavioral and biological determinants among the adult population residing in Luxembourg. Such data should offer new possibilities for successful intervention to prevent and treat the metabolic syndrome before the coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes develop in susceptible individuals and groups.