There is one China we all know that has grown exponentially since the adoption of the market reforms in 1978, maintaining in the last years an average annual GDP growth rate of about 9%. This success was sustained by specific policies aiming at creating a two-speed system favoring the coastal and urban areas, thus to attract foreign investments and boost industrialization and trade. The first part of this work is designed to provide the reader with an overview of the policies and events that shaped China's economic development. The remainder of the book sheds light on the nature and evolution of the spatial disparities in China with special attention to the rural-urban dimension and the changes occurred after China's WTO accession. Anyone interested in knowing more about China's economic miracle will find in this book useful information and insights to picture the current multifaceted reality of the Chinese economy.