Automobiles are the major sources of urban air pollutants. Increasing demands for transport amenities have resulted in progressive increase of traffic volume in Kolkata, India. Besides, poor road condition, and insufficient road space are also significantly promoting deterioration of air quality in the city. Major air pollutants for Kolkata include Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) Respirable Particulate Matter or RPM (PM10), Fine Particulate Matter or FPM (PM2.5), Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Non Respirable Particulate Matter (NRPM). An approach towards the management of the problem related with air pollution in the city is to find how qualitative patterns of both traffic and air quality vary in different times of a day and how the traffic characteristics is quantitatively related with air quality. The issues have been dealt with in the current book for a typical perspective of the Kolkata metropolis, India.