This book is as a result of a PhD Thesis research undertaken to evaluate the cost benefit of Ecological sanitation as a technique for improving agricultural productivity of soils in developing countries using Uganda as a model. The book comprises 4 chapters; chapter 1 is an introduction, giving the background to the study and rationale for studying EcoSan with respect to soil productivity. Chapter 2 gives an analysis of the worldwide current literature on the subject of EcoSan. In chapter 3, the author articulates the methodology used to undertake this research; the chapter highlights both the scientific experimentation and the social economic opponents of the study. The last chapter – chapter 4, gives a summary analysis of the results of the study obtained over a period of 2 years. Among other things, the author highlights attitudes of communities towards use of human waster for agriculture, policy implications from Uganda’s perspective. The chapter further presents yield results obtained during the experimentation in comparison with two other control groups as a basis for calculating benefit over cost for EcoSan.