This book is a result of a Master of Art in Sociology that intends to explore the means by which majority of Tanzanians are excluded from the ambit of the existing social security provisioning. Qualitative and quantitative research findings revealed that exclusion of the majority from the ambit of the existing social security schemes is principally caused by restrictive legislation which defines the personal scope of coverage for each of the social security schemes in Tanzania, also critical shortage of knowledge on social security prompts the current state of affairs, the copying strategies against social and income risks of the excluded majority are explained. The study concludes that majority (especially informal sector workers) are marginalized by the existing social security schemes and left into the hands of informal and traditional social security which are not adequate to uplift them from the miserable lives they are in, hence subjected to abject poverty. Specialized schemes for the excluded majority are recommended by the study due to the fact that they are not homogenous and neither are their needs and priorities. This book is recommended to academics and policy makers.