Urinary tumor markers that help in the early detection of bladder cancer promise a particular improvement in sensitivity, specificity and convenience over conventional, invasive diagnostic tests. This book present our research work which assessed the diagnostic efficacy of urinary survivin RNA for early detection of bladder cancer. The study included 78 bladder cancer patients, 61 patients with Schistosomal cystitis and 50 healthy volunteers. All underwent serological assessment of Schistosomiasis antibody, urine cytology, and survivin RNA estimation by qualitative and semiquantative reverse transcriptase- nested polymerase chain reaction in urothelial cells from voided urine. The study revealed significant difference in the positivity rate of survivin RNA among the 3 groups. Survivin RNA mean rank using semi quantitative method was increased in the malignant group vs the other groups. The best cutoff value for survivin RNA was 0.91. Using this cutoff value, survivin RNA sensitivity was 78.2% and specificity was 100%. Urine cytology sensitivity improved when combined with survivin RNA. We conclude that survivin RNA is a promising urine marker for bladder cancer detection.