The wisdom of local community in present-day is under intense pressure due to the influence of the modernity. However,customary justice in Africa covers most parts of the continent. It has more strong place for pastoral community, where the arm of government has not been reaching until recent years. In this book one of the prominent part of justice provision by the local customary institutions is studied with details. These institutions are named commonly as Gadaa system of Oromo community in Ethiopia. It is one of the few local judicial systems which have been able to survive the pressure of the widening modern criminal justice system. This system is studied by scholars as a form of governance, while the judicial aspect of the institution has not been well explored. This book provides in depth analysis of the Gadaa system with main emphasis on the judicial aspects of the system. It also formulates comparative analysis of criminal and customary practice of justice provision. This work is the result of an accumulated knowledge of the author, who has direct exposure to facts and connection to the system as the members of the Oromo community.