This book explores the essential traits for building cross-national operating accelerator ecosystems. By building upon existing ecosystem and network theory, this book investigates the essential conditions on a local as well as global level and the influence it has on all participating parties. As a result grounded theory is being built and a practical framework set. Hereby, the book contributes value from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. From a theoretical point of view it extends ecosystem and network theory within the segment of accelerator ecosystems. Furthermore, the books shapes accelerator theory by further distinguishing between accelerator theory and incubator theory as well as by delivering a framework for cross-nationally operating accelerator programs. From a practical point of view participating parties of this ecosystem receive an objective overview of what to expect and how to add value most efficiently within this framework.