Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic islets. T cell proliferation is negatively regulated by Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 polymorphisms are associated with T1D in some but not all populations. the author investigated the prevalence of the selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire CTLA-4 gene sequence with the Egyptian population .In this book, the author showed all the basic experimental techniques routinely used in practical Molecular Human Genetics today. No Contemporary Book on modern Human Genetics and Molecular Biology techniques would be complete without chapter on mutational Genetics analysis as Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, Quantitative Real time PCR, Gene expression, posttranscriptional Regulatory mechanisms and microRNA applications, and these topics have been extensively covered in this book. This book is essential reading for all bioscience undergraduate / postgraduate students and medical students for whom practical molecular biology, immunogenetics and Human Genetics form part of the syllabus.