The relationship between environment and Human Beings is inseparable. Human societies found in specific environments and also create their own out of the natural and the social realm. As such there is an inter-influencing effect between them. Human Beings equipped with their cultural gadget interact and even exploit the nature for their benefit. One important aspect of nature which is thoroughly influenced and in fact very much important in meeting human needs is biodiversity. The indiscriminate utilization and exploitation of nature has deleterious effects on the biodiversity which in turn subvert the very interest of the people who depend upon it for their food, medicine, materials and various other social needs. This book deals with two forest belts of Andhra Pradesh which are Populated with two different cultural backgrounds one using simple technology and moderately depending upon it while the other is loaded with highly heterogeneous cultures using advanced technology with scant dependance on the nature. This work also speaks of the ethno-ecological knowledge of the tribes and its utility in developing conservation strategies in supplement to scientific knowledge.