The rapid urban development has put great pressures on city’s historic structures and areas. The complexity of the current situations necessitates an integrated urban conservation in order to maintain the character and identity of the city. This book deals primarily with cultural heritage and urban conservation in Indonesia, by taking the city of Surakarta as a case study. It initially demonstrates the values that the city has as the basis for conservation. As a past evaluation, it shows how the local authority policies had acknowledged its culture and tourism as important aspects for development since the early independence period until now. Then, as present assessment, it attempts to explore urban development and conservation policies as well as conservation plan and practice of the Municipality. This book also tries to investigate current situations of cultural heritage and urban conservation through stakeholder and problem identification. As future choices, it addresses several scenarios and strategies for the future, what needs to be done and how to go about it.