This study attempts to indicate the significance of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in translation to determine how it can be used to indicate the cultural and ideological deviation during translation process. Based on some possible reasons behind translation distortion that occurs when language is transferred from source text (ST) to target text (TT), it tries to indicate the relation of discourse and social structures. In this regard, after defining the key concepts, it elaborates on the works of some prominent critical discourse analyst, and some works related to given study. The reason for doing the research is to indicate the importance of cultural and ideological similarities and differences during translation process, to show the privileges of CDA over the other discourse analyses (DA) i.e., structuralism & functionalism. Having adapted Van Dijk & Huckin's methodology, their theories and key concepts are discussed and elaborated. The translation of the novel "The Old Man and the Sea" by Ernest Hemingway, is analyzed based on the mentioned framework with respect to the cultural and ideological standpoints of the translator.