This book is designed with aim to convey general view and stimulate specific knowledge which appeals for a wide spectrum of readers. It will be of great value-addition for the next generation students, researchers, scientists as well as teachers. The content covers the broad area from microbial biotechnology to recent developments in bioinformatics. The emphasis is also given on the utilization of traditional knowledge for the recent and scientific development of biotechnology. The content is designed in such a manner so that it would fulfil gap between past and future scope of subject. The major audience of the book will be researchers from different part of the world related to the multifarious aspect of microbiology, genetics, bioinformatics and biotechnology.