In the history of leishmaniasis, several methods were used for classification, characterization and identification of the infecting parasites. The conventional methods of clinical diagnosis of CL have ranged from clinical picture and epidemiological data, visualizing the amastigotes by microscopy of stained smears from skin touch specimens or biopsies to in-vitro culturing of the parasite. These conventional methods are, however, limited in sensitivity, need an experienced hand and do not distinguish between Leishmaniaspecies which differ in virulence and, subsequently, may require different therapeutic regimes and control measures. For all this and over the last decade diagnostic tests based on molecular biology techniques i. e PCR, were introduced and proved to be more sensitive and specific. PCR protocols were given priority over conventional methods, although few of these studies gave conflicting results. These discrepancies are due to factors like the different gold standards being used to define a case of CL and sampling methods.